PWA新手教程:手把手教你制作自己的网页“小程序”

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  • 来源:安徽大学教务系统_安徽大学教务处_安徽大学教务管理系统青大教务
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36氪APP 让一部分人先看到未来 36氪 鲸准 氪空间

为你推送和解读最前沿、最有料的科技创投资讯

一级市场金融信息和系统服务提供商

聚集全球最优秀的创业者,项目融资率接近97%,领跑行业

(2)把sw-toolbox添加到我们的项目。我们只需要把 这个文件 添加到根目录中。

(3)新建一个文件,将其命名为sw.js并把以下内容复制、粘贴到该文件内。

‘use strict’; importScripts(‘sw-toolbox.js’); toolbox.precache([“index.html”,”style/style.css”]); toolbox.router.get(‘/images/*’, toolbox.cacheFirst); toolbox.router.get(‘/*’, toolbox.networkFirst, { networkTimeoutSeconds: 5});

这三步都完成以后,我们需要确认文件的路径、编辑预缓存(precache )并列出所有我们想要在离线状态下储存的文件。本文作者uve在他的页面仅仅使用了index.html和style.css两个文件,而我们也考可以另外添加别的文件或页面。

然后,我们就可以再次打开Lighthouse,进行测试。以下是添加了service worker以后在本地主机(localhost)的测试结果:

除了保存页面之外,如果想让service worker实现别的功能(比如在没有网络的情况下,显示特定离线页面),我们可以登录pwabuilder,这里有一些不同的service worker脚本(script)可供使用。

第五步:交给GitHub Pages托管

PWA创建成功后,是时候与全世界分享你的作品了!根据本文作者uve解释,发布PWA页面最简单的方法就是登录 GitHub Pages。

GitHub Pages是一个面向开源及私有软件项目的托管平台,完全免费,因为只支持Git作为唯一的版本库格式进行托管,故名 GitHub。

通过使用GitHub的GUI(图形用户界面),我们可以轻松地把我们的代码交给GitHub管理,创建一个库(repository),把我们的代码放进去。

这一步完成以后,我们就要在Github上找到我们的PWA网站,进入设定页面,向下滚动鼠标,滑至页面下方,选择主分支(master branch),从而激活GitHub页面。

这样,你的PWA页面就有了一个有效的(live)URL。

这时候再打开Lighthouse,就会发现测试结果大大不同了。

现在,你终于可以把自己的PWA页面和朋友们分享啦!或者,你也可以下载这个PWA页面,添加到你的手机主页。

作者uve本人的作品实例

上图就是作者的PWA页面在手机上的效果。(查看作者的代码,请戳这里)

这是作者为了写这个科普贴子而特地制作的PWA页面,名为“Web Community Leads UK and IE”,是一个促进人们互相交流web技术的平台。

(关于该平台的详情,可关注Daniel的贴子,也可以直接浏览该页面。)

虽然这个和作者刚开始建立PWA的时候看起来一样,但是在Samsung Internet(三星自带的浏览器)上浏览它的时候,地址栏会变成主题色(淡紫)。而且,页面上还会出现“+”的符号,点击它,我们就可以把这个PWA页面添加到手机主屏幕。点击主屏幕当中的PWA图标,就可以使它全屏显示,并且我们还可以在离线状态下使用。

编译组出品。编辑:郝鹏程

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| 芝麻信用总经理2年回顾:没有一条路会白走","catch_title":"","summary":"其实,芝麻过去2年多做的,只是开了个头。","content":"

文章来自:芝麻信用总经理 胡滔

芝麻信用成立2年多时间,这2年多来,我们在信用城市建设上走过了一些路。芝麻是一家做信用的公司,我还记得成立的时候,公司和我说,对芝麻,我们没有盈利的期待,就是希望你能把信用城市这个事情做成,能让中国老百姓有“信”可“用”,也就是说,让大家能积累自己的信用,且能因为信用好,而享受更好的城市生活。

我当时觉得,挺好,没有盈利压力,应该就能轻装上阵,结果发现,事情根本没有想象的那么容易。说两个小故事。

2年前,我们想做一件事,就是和城市的公共自行车合作,让用户不需要办一张卡,存200元押金才能骑车,而是扫一下二维码,就能把车骑走。结果,我们芝麻的同学大概花了近一年时间,几乎跑遍了所有的城市公共自行车的供应商,结果,没有一家愿意和我们合作。大家问,没有押金,要是有人骑车不还,怎么办,这个损失谁来承担呢?

第二个小故事,也是大概一年半前,我们和北京的机场安检通道合作,让芝麻信用分较高的用户可以走专用的快速安检通道,当时我们的想法很简单,我们想通过一些方式,让大家认识到,信用好可以给自己的生活带来帮助。没想到,这引起了市场的一场大讨论:芝麻与机场VIP通道的合作,究竟是信用服务还是信用营销?1个月后,我们就把这个合作结束掉了,最后大家的共识是,这个场景其实并不是很适合信用,它更适合会员积分这样的业务去合作。

像第一个故事这样被他人拒绝的事情,和像第二个故事这样自我否定的事情,在过去三年,其实我们遇到了很多。 原因很简单,建设信用城市,搭建社会信用体系这件事,在中国还太新了,这条路应该怎么走,其实我们都没有经验。

但非常幸运的事情在于,中国正处于一个对信用价值大发现的时代,不管是普通用户、还是政府部门、商业机构,包括我们自己,对信用是什么,能有什么用,都在快速的学习过程之中。

还是说回上面的故事:2年前,大家对信用免押还没什么信心,压根没有人愿意和我们合作免押金租车,2年后,这件事情却成为了行业标配。大量的共享单车企业都在试行免押金,而且,效果要比我们想象的好,可以分享一些数字,免押金租车,免掉的押金有40亿,免押金后,平均骑行人次增长了50%,而且租金欠款率反而下降了52%,丢车比率也下降46%,对于共享单车的风险控制来说,我们感觉,对于信用好的用户,完全可以免去押金。现在,靠信用租车的用户已经有3000多万,有留学生把这种共享单车说成是中国新四大发明之一。

2年多来,我们尝试的领域,已经扩展到公共交通、医疗服务、政务办理、社会治理等等,在我看来,这些对于信用城市来说,也是更有价值的。因为让老百姓在证明“我是我”,证明自己“可信”这件事情上,不再需要依靠押金、繁琐的证明材料、甚至预付费,并因此产生更好的获得感,只需要依靠良好的信用记录,这是一般的会员积分干不了的事情。

回头看,我们发现,自己走过一些弯路,但是,这些弯路却都不是白走的。 我和我们团队的同学说,信用城市这件事急不得,要知道,西方发达国家的信用体系建设,是花了一两百年,才到达今天这个阶段的,中国可能是希望用他们十分之一的时间,来补上自己的这块短板,这是一件不容易的事。

而且,中国在想的,还并不仅仅是补短板,这可能还是一次跨越式发展的机会。西方国家在建设自己信用体系的时候,还没有互联网技术,用户的信用记录累积速度慢、维度不多,更新相对滞后,应用场景也很难做到丰富。但这些问题,依托互联网技术,都是可以得到解决的。这就有点像无现金,西方用银行卡来取代现金,中国在卡时代落后他们很多,但是互联网到来后,我们用手机支付迅速形成了换道超车的局面, 在信用城市建设上,我们也正在迎来这样换道超车的机会。 今天,有几百位城市管理者齐聚杭州,讨论信用城市建设,我相信,也正是因为看到了这样的机会。

从参与信用城市建设的角度说,接下来会有几个我们重点努力的方向:

第一,是通过信用提升 政务服务 的获得感。在深圳,有26万老年人在领取养老金的时候,不需要再去人社大厅做验证,来证明“我是我”。他们可以在家对着手机,做一次人脸识别和信用认证,就可以了。像这样让老百姓不用再提交繁杂材料,和反复跑腿的政务服务,我们希望可以越多越好。

第二,是通过信用,提升 城市公共服务 的体验,包括医疗、交通、租房等等方面,推广免押金,甚至是先享受服务后付钱这样的模式。比如,我们正在和杭州住建部讨论,让杭州更多的租房房源可以免押金租房,减轻年轻人在杭州打拼的经济压力。

第三,是通过信用来促进 共享经济 更快速的发展,此前我们在共享单车、充电宝、雨伞图书借还、3C回收、酒店住宿等方面,帮助用户累计减免押金380亿,我们希望继续优化我们的平台和产品,更好地服务我们的伙伴,让这个数字继续增长,降低用户使用门槛,推动共享经济更快成长。

这当中可能有一些尝试,在西方国家也不曾有过。所以,我们成立了1亿元专项基金,专门来支持一些创业伙伴和我们一起来做探索。

其实,芝麻过去2年多做的,只是开了个头。对于信用城市建设来说,我们觉得, 全社会还只是做了1%,还有99%的信用场景在等待开掘 ,有些场景,我们可能找到了第一个吃螃蟹的人,但还没有复制推广开来,还有更多的场景,我们压根还没能去发掘,这件事,仅仅靠我们的智慧和能力,是远远不够的。需要很多城市的管理者、企业等一起来做。

信用城市这件事,足够数量的场景非常重要,因为,只有场景足够多,才能形成一个正向循环,有信用的人,才能处处得到便利,没有信用的人,才会觉得寸步难行。如果说这个积累过程是从1到100,那从1到10是最关键的。

在信用城市建设上,最后想分享一句很激励我的话,美国的今天不一定是中国的明天,中国的明天却有可能是美国的后天。我想,芝麻信用,以及我本人,都将非常乐意参与这整个探索的过程。

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